FACTS

DENGUE EPIDEMIC IN MALAYSIA

The first dengue fever outbreak in Malaysia was recorded in 1962 from Penang with 41 cases and 5 deaths were reported. Subsequently, a series of outbreak reported in 1973 with 1,487 cases with 54 deaths, 1974 with 2,200 cases with 104 deaths and 1982 with 3,006 cases reported including 35 deaths. Since year 2000, the number of dengue cases and incidence rate (IR) continue to increase with the highest ever reported in 2014.

A total of 108,698 cases were reported which is equivalent to IR of 361.1 cases in 100,000 populations in that year. Fifty six percent (56%) of the cases contributed by Klang Valley in which 49% were from Selangor and 7% from Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur-Putrajaya. In the period of 2000 to 2014, the number of reported dengue cases was between 7,103 and 108,698 cases per year and the annual incidence rate range from 31.6 to 361.1 cases per 100,000 populations. All age group were affected with dengue infection and theBi-seasonal peak of the dengue epidemic was observed in 2014 and this pattern was unusual compared to the five years median trend of previous years. It is also observed that the seasonal peak of the epidemic occurred at different month compared to 2013. In 2014, the bi seasonal epidemic peak happened in the month of January to March and July to September. However in 2013, the epidemic peak occurred only from October until December. The seasonal trend of dengue in Malaysia is complex and changes in the pattern of epidemic peak could be the influence of global climate change in this region.

On February 15 2016 in Outbreak News Today reported that new numbers from the Malaysia Health Ministry, or the KementerianKesihatan show that since the beginning of the year, the country has reported nearly 20,000 dengue fever cases to date. The actual number is 19,996 through Sunday, including 43 dengue related fatalities. During the general same time frame in 2015, Malaysia reported 19,349 cases through Feb. 16, 2015. In addition, the death toll last year was 44 at this time.

DENGUE CASES RECORDED FROM 2000 TO JAN 2016 (JAN 3 – JAN 16)

FACTS & FIGURES IN MALAYSIA & GLOBAL

  • About 70% of the US$718 treatment cost per case is paid for by the government, whilst the rest of the cost is borne by the patient. This cost per patient alone is equal to 53 days of lost economic output.
  • The fight against dengue fever amounts to 3-7% of government spending on healthcare, and the healthcare costs of the disease are estimated to be 11 times greater than government spending on vector control.
  • Added to these direct costs is the potential impact that the virus has on Malaysia’s important tourism sector.

WHAT CAN BE DONE TO FIGHT DENGUE AND AT WHAT COST ?

“Together in one unity, the community and various agencies need to have “search and destroy” mind set and implement effective solutions to eradicate deadly Aedes mosquitoes from breeding.”

Estimated economic burden of dengue: US$56million per year Using an adjusted estimate of total dengue cases, the estimated economic burden of dengue is US$56 million (Malaysian Ringgit MYR196 million) per year, approximately US$2.03 (Malaysian Ringgit 7.14) per capita.

The overall economic burden of dengue would be even higher taking into consideration costs associated with dengue prevention and control, dengue surveillance, and long-term sequelae of dengue. Apart from the direct cost of combating the vector mosquito and treating those who have become infected, there is also the loss of productivity resulting from those suffering from the illness. Estimates put the number of working days lost due to dengue fever at more than 940,000 a year, a significant drain on the economy .

Source : SANOFI PASTEUR- http://asia.dengue.info/sites/default/files/factsheet_dengue_in_malaysia.pdf

References/Footnotes

  • SazalyAbubakar (Malaysian J Pathol2002; 24(1): 23 – 27). Outlook of dengue in Malaysia: a century later. Retrieved from Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya: http://mjpath.org.my/past_issue/MJP2002.1/Outlook%20of%20dengue%20in%20Malaysia.pdf
  • Nor Azila Muhammad Azami1, S. A.-m. (2011, June 29). Dengue epidemic in Malaysia: Not a predominantly urban disease anymore.
  • Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1756-0500/4/216
  • Ministry of Health Malaysia, personal communication, February 2014
  • World Health Organization. (2012). Retrieved from Global Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control 2012 – 2020. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  • Ministry of Health Malaysia. (2013, December). SituasiDenggiBagiTahun 2013 di Malaysia. Retrieved from KenyataanAkhbar TKPK: file:///C:/Users/luic/Downloads/KENYATAAN%20AKHBAR%20TKPK%20(KA)%20UNTUK% 20DENGGI%20BAGI%20TAHUN%202013_MINGGU%2052_1_JAN_2014.pdf